After neurotransmitters are synthesized, they are packaged and stored in vesicles.These vesicles are pooled together in terminal boutons of the presynaptic neuron.When ionotropic receptors are activated, certain ion species such as Na to enter the postsynaptic neuron, which depolarizes the postsynaptic membrane.

The undershoot phase occurs because unlike voltage-gated sodium channels, voltage-gated potassium channels inactivate much more slowly.

Nevertheless, as more voltage-gated K channels become inactivated, the membrane potential recovers to its normal resting steady state..

Neurons are cells that are specialized to receive, propagate, and transmit electrochemical impulses.

In the human brain alone, there are over eighty billion neurons.

Cellular neuroscience is the study of neurons at a cellular level.

This includes morphology and physiological properties of single neurons.In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity.Since memories are postulated to be represented by vastly interconnected networks of synapses in the brain, synaptic plasticity is one of the important neurochemical foundations of learning and memory (see Hebbian theory).Several techniques such as intracellular recording, patch-clamp, and voltage-clamp technique, pharmacology, confocal imaging, molecular biology, two photon laser scanning microscopy and Ca2 imaging have been used to study activity at the cellular level.Cellular neuroscience examines the various types of neurons, the functions of different neurons, the influence of neurons upon each other, how neurons work together.Synaptic plasticity in both excitatory and inhibitory synapses has been found to be dependent upon postsynaptic calcium release Two molecular mechanisms for synaptic plasticity (researched by the Eric Kandel laboratories) involve the NMDA and AMPA glutamate receptors.