The oldest pottery discovered in the Americas, found at San Jacinto, dates to 5000–4000 BCE.

Most of the Amerindians practiced agriculture and the social structure of each indigenous community was different.

Some groups of indigenous people such as the Caribs lived in a state of permanent war, but others had less bellicose attitudes.

Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, and thereby possesses a rich cultural heritage.

The urban centres are mostly located in the highlands of the Andes mountains.

It was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but especially to those portions under Spanish and Portuguese rule.

The name was later adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819, formed from the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada (modern-day Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, Ecuador, and northwest Brazil).In 1508, Vasco Núñez de Balboa accompanied an expedition to the territory through the region of Gulf of Urabá and they founded the town of Santa María la Antigua del Darién in 1510, the first stable settlement on the continent.Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada led an expedition to the interior in April 1536, and christened the districts through which he passed "New Kingdom of Granada".In 1547, New Granada became the Captaincy-General of New Granada within the viceroyalty.In 1549, the Royal Audiencia was created by a royal decree, and New Granada was ruled by the Royal Audience of Santa Fe de Bogotá, which at that time comprised the provinces of Santa Marta, Rio de San Juan, Popayán, Guayana and Cartagena.In August 1538, he founded provisionally its capital near the Muisca cacicazgo of Bacatá, and named it "Santa Fe".